A review of thiazolidinediones and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with focus on cardiovascular complications.
Molavi B, Rassouli N, Bagwe S, Rasouli N.
Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):967-73. PMID: 18200815

The rising incidence of obesity and insulin resistance to epidemic proportions has closely paralleled the surge in the prevalence of diabetes and outpaced therapeutic advances in diabetes prevention and treatment. Current evidence points to obesity induced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as the common denominators in the evolution of insulin resistance and diabetes. Of all the hypoglycemic agents in the pharmacological arsenal against diabetes, thiazolidinediones, in particular pioglitazone, as well as metformin appear to have additional effects in ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation; rendering them attractive tools for prevention of insulin resistance and diabetes. In addition to their hypoglycemic and lipid modifying properties, pioglitazone and metformin have been shown to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vascular beds, potentially slowing the accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the affected population. The combination of pioglitazone and metformin would thus appear to be an effective pharmacological intervention in prevention and treatment of diabetes. Finally, this review will address the currently available evidence on diabetic cardiomyopathy and the potential role of combination therapy with pioglitazone and metformin.

Thiazolidinediones review

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<type 'exceptions.OSError'>
Python 2.7.9: /usr/bin/python
Sat Oct 10 11:46:58 2015

A problem occurred in a Python script. Here is the sequence of function calls leading up to the error, in the order they occurred.

 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in ()
    360         if(debugMode): print "got keyword:",theKeyword,"<br>\n"
=>  362         returnArticles(theKeyword)
    363 elif("setupTest" in form):
    364         curPath = os.path.dirname(sys.argv[0])
returnArticles = <function returnArticles>, theKeyword = 'thiazolidinediones'
 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in returnArticles(keyword='thiazolidinediones')
    332 def returnArticles(keyword):
=>  333         keywordID=updateKeywordArticles(keyword) #will create keyword if doesn't exist and update articles if necessary
    335         #should assume articles now updated and in db
keywordID undefined, global updateKeywordArticles = <function updateKeywordArticles>, keyword = 'thiazolidinediones'
 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in updateKeywordArticles(keyword='thiazolidinediones')
    270         if(needsUpdate):
    271                 if(debugMode): print "updating keyword...<br>\n"
=>  272                 pmidList=pubmedSearch(keyword)
    273                 if(debugMode): print "<br><br>\n"
    274                 for pmid in pmidList:
pmidList undefined, global pubmedSearch = <function pubmedSearch>, keyword = 'thiazolidinediones'
 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in pubmedSearch(keywords='thiazolidinediones')
    213 def pubmedSearch(keywords):
    214         handle = Entrez.esearch(db="pubmed", term=keywords)
=>  215         record = Entrez.read(handle)
    216         tenPmids=record["IdList"][:10]
    217         return tenPmids
record undefined, global Entrez = <module 'Bio.Entrez' from '/usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/Bio/Entrez/__init__.pyc'>, Entrez.read = <function read>, handle = <addinfourl at 3064925740L whose fp = <socket._fileobject object>>
 /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/Bio/Entrez/__init__.py in read(handle=<addinfourl at 3064925740L whose fp = <socket._fileobject object>>, validate=True)
    368     the tag name in my_element.tag.
    369     """
=>  370     from .Parser import DataHandler
    371     handler = DataHandler(validate)
    372     record = handler.read(handle)
DataHandler undefined
 /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/Bio/Entrez/Parser.py in ()
=>  152 class DataHandler(object):
    154     import platform
DataHandler undefined, builtin object = <type 'object'>
 /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/Bio/Entrez/Parser.py in DataHandler()
    169         # a race condition.
    170         if not os.path.isdir(local_dtd_dir):
=>  171             raise exception
    173     from Bio import Entrez
exception = OSError(13, 'Permission denied')

<type 'exceptions.OSError'>: [Errno 13] Permission denied: '/var/www/.config'
      args = (13, 'Permission denied')
      errno = 13
      filename = '/var/www/.config'
      message = ''
      strerror = 'Permission denied'