A review of thiazolidinediones and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with focus on cardiovascular complications.
Molavi B, Rassouli N, Bagwe S, Rasouli N.
Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):967-73. PMID: 18200815


The rising incidence of obesity and insulin resistance to epidemic proportions has closely paralleled the surge in the prevalence of diabetes and outpaced therapeutic advances in diabetes prevention and treatment. Current evidence points to obesity induced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as the common denominators in the evolution of insulin resistance and diabetes. Of all the hypoglycemic agents in the pharmacological arsenal against diabetes, thiazolidinediones, in particular pioglitazone, as well as metformin appear to have additional effects in ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation; rendering them attractive tools for prevention of insulin resistance and diabetes. In addition to their hypoglycemic and lipid modifying properties, pioglitazone and metformin have been shown to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in vascular beds, potentially slowing the accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the affected population. The combination of pioglitazone and metformin would thus appear to be an effective pharmacological intervention in prevention and treatment of diabetes. Finally, this review will address the currently available evidence on diabetic cardiomyopathy and the potential role of combination therapy with pioglitazone and metformin.


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<type 'exceptions.UnicodeEncodeError'>
Python 2.7.3: /usr/bin/python
Sun Nov 23 04:23:24 2014

A problem occurred in a Python script. Here is the sequence of function calls leading up to the error, in the order they occurred.

 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in ()
    360         if(debugMode): print "got keyword:",theKeyword,"<br>\n"
    361         
=>  362         returnArticles(theKeyword)
    363 elif("setupTest" in form):
    364         curPath = os.path.dirname(sys.argv[0])
returnArticles = <function returnArticles>, theKeyword = 'thiazolidinediones'
 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in returnArticles(keyword='thiazolidinediones')
    331         
    332 def returnArticles(keyword):
=>  333         keywordID=updateKeywordArticles(keyword) #will create keyword if doesn't exist and update articles if necessary
    334         
    335         #should assume articles now updated and in db
keywordID undefined, global updateKeywordArticles = <function updateKeywordArticles>, keyword = 'thiazolidinediones'
 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in updateKeywordArticles(keyword='thiazolidinediones')
    278                                 if(debugMode): print "article already exists, id is %s<br>\n" % articleID
    279                         else:
=>  280                                 pmidInfo=pubmedSummary(pmid)
    281                                 #addArticle
    282                                 exSQL("INSERT INTO `%s` SET PMID='%s',authors='%s',title='%s',publishDate='%s',journal='%s'" % ((dbTablePrefix+"articles"),pmid,pmidInfo['authors'],pmidInfo['title'],pmidInfo['date'],pmidInfo['journal'],))
pmidInfo undefined, global pubmedSummary = <function pubmedSummary>, pmid = '25415639'
 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in pubmedSummary(pmid='25415639')
    225         returnArray['pmid']=escapeQuotes(pmid)
    226         #print "title type is",strType(r['Title']),"<br>\n"
=>  227         returnArray['title']=escapeQuotes(r['Title'])
    228         
    229         authorString=""
returnArray = {'pmid': '25415639'}, global escapeQuotes = <function escapeQuotes>, r = {'DOI': '10.1515/hmbci-2014-0026', 'Title': u'Se...ypeList': ['Journal Article'], u'Id': '25415639'}
 /var/www-mass/thiazolidinediones.com/relatedArticles/relatedArticlesBLTC.py in escapeQuotes(astring=u'Sex hormones influence expression and function...u03b3 in adipocytes: pathophysiological aspects.')
    244 def escapeQuotes(astring):
    245         #string=astring.encode("utf-8")
=>  246         returnString=str(astring).replace('"','\\"')
    247         returnString=returnString.replace("'","\\'")
    248         return returnString
returnString undefined, builtin str = <type 'str'>, astring = u'Sex hormones influence expression and function...u03b3 in adipocytes: pathophysiological aspects.', ).replace = <built-in method replace of UnicodeElement object>

<type 'exceptions.UnicodeEncodeError'>: 'ascii' codec can't encode character u'\u03b3' in position 93: ordinal not in range(128)
      args = ('ascii', u'Sex hormones influence expression and function o...ptor \u03b3 in adipocytes: pathophysiological aspects.', 93, 94, 'ordinal not in range(128)')
      encoding = 'ascii'
      end = 94
      message = ''
      object = u'Sex hormones influence expression and function o...ptor \u03b3 in adipocytes: pathophysiological aspects.'
      reason = 'ordinal not in range(128)'
      start = 93